Wednesday, June 5, 2019
The Analysis of Body Language Intercultural Communications
The Analysis of clay Language Intercultural CommunicationsAbstractWith the global conference go closer,except the verbal confabulation in daily sprightliness, we may encounter many consistency styles. These body spoken spoken actors lines tush converse their mood or even change ace sentence. Therefore, in order to under bag the intercultural parley better, this oration first introduces the relationship between burnish and address, then briefly explains what body vocabulary is and its aim in intercultural communication, subsequently, briefly analyses the disaccordences of the homogeneous body style in different refinements. At last, the dissertation suggests that when studying side language, one providet ignore the huge body language, it will be helpful with our English study.Key words Language culture body language intercultural communicationI. IntroductionWith the international communication becoming more and more frequently, Chinese throng may have many c hances to get in touch with foreigners. They ever so practice session many body languages with their s point. It is a funny phenomena. Shakespeare said Theres language in her eyes, her cheek, her lip, Nay, her foot speaks. Indeed, these body language non only can practice their word lively, only all overly express the speakers mood, or even substitute a sentence. What the body language means when they use for communication?This is the necessary knowledge of English study. Any benevolent of body language is formed on the foundation of culture. Without understanding the true gist of a body language, it will embarrass or make mistake. Therefore, this dissertation will depth psychology the differences of comparable body language in the different cultures and suggest to study English on the premise of understanding their culture.II. Literature retread2.1 Culture and language2.1.1 CultureThe definition of culture is evolving as time passes. In the wolfram, at first it was em ploy to describe some ability of soulfulness which face a form of act. Then culture utilize to describe the touchable achievement of a instructed person. And in 1952, a handwriting of Alfred L. Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn named Culture. A scathing Review of Concepts and translations was give a general definition based on more than 160 gentles of cultures definition which was identified by modern east and west academic circle. And in China, its meaning was that with the understanding of all phenomena of human social, govern the world with instructing and inspiring. In the Confucian conception, wen non only means word, just now also refer to all the rules of etiquette and music in general. In ancient Chinese language, culture meant guiding mint with ethics. Culture is a complex concept and changing with human social. However, the word culture is most commonly used in three basic sensesExcellence of hold in the fine humanistic discipline and humanities, also known as high cultureAn integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon the capacity for symbolic thought and social learningThe good deal of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution, organization or group2.1.2 LanguageLanguage is the most-valuable thinking and communicating tool of human being. With language flock can cargo hold and pass human civilization achievement. In general, any nation has its own language. It is a notable character of a nation and has long history. Language is about related with thought. It is the carrier and exhibition form of thought. Language is a social phenomenon with stability and nationality. Though many animals can make sound to express their perception or preserve message, these sounds are regular without change. Only person have language and can combine all the sounds that have no meaning to turn a meaningful morpheme, then put these morphemes together in many ways to form utterance. Using unnumbered changing form to express infinite changing meaning.2.1.3 The relationship between language and cultureCulture and language are mutual dependence and can not be separated. Language is neighborhood of culture, it is the media of culture communication. We use language to communicate, and language is largely influenced by culture.The relationship between culture and language is on the foundation of nation. A nation produces language, at the same time produces culture. Edward Sapir thought that language can not exist without culture. The culture we talk about is social custom and belief. It can decide our life structure. Linguistician Palmer said that language faithfully reflects all the history and culture, game and amusement, belief and prejudice of a nation. As a phonationing of nations culture, language reflects the nations visage, at the same time, language reflects the content of culture as form.Language is the cardinal carrier of culture. Other carriers such as historical site, book, or painting, only show part or even a corner of culture. just language stores all the information of culture comprehensively. Language consists of voice, vocabulary and grammar. Vocabulary, especially the notional word, bear the important responsibility of carrying culture. Time passes, and many new words are coming into being, such as virtual floating, means netizens put their worries and secrets in the virtual nursing bottle without knowing who will get it. All of these are anonymous. And kickback, the original of this word is that the International Olympic Committee will open an ethics investigation into Issa Hayatou over allegations the African football official took kickbacks from FIFAs former marketing agency. entirely these new words fractiously possible become part of culture. Only those language circumstance that integrate into the bottom life deeply, chosen and washed out by history, enter the basic nation vocabulary is the sign of language af fect culture profoundly. For example, Buddhism have been spreaded about 2000 years. Some words like free, retribution, disengagement, hell are coming from Buddhism. These words have already integrated into Chinese become part of it.Culture has effect on language semiotic system itself, language concept, thought and expression, and language learning. Nation culture is decided by the meaning of vocabulary. divers(prenominal) culture tradition and mentality have definitively function to it. Such as dragon, the westbound spate have no favor to it, they thought it is monster, cruel person, stand for devil. But in ancient Chinese culture it stands for the son of heaven and the emperor, lucky and honorable. The reference content and way of culture are decided by the cultures person and persons culture. For example, Cantonese cant see snow for the whole year, so they do not distinguish ice and snow in concept. The northman say , and Cantonese say . But the Eskimo who live in arctic pole always contact with snow and have a perceptive. There are more than 20 kinds of words used to describe different snow. As the carrier and express tool of thought, language promote the development of thought, on the other hand, language is restricted by thought. For instance, Chinese say , that is and , looking into the physics function of and . But in English, there is railway train, look into the move way of rail and track.To understand the culture of English countries is the important step of English study. The look into of language and culture is break upd into language culture and language in culture. So culture is divided into two part big culture and small culture.(Bright, 1976) Here is a formlanguageBig cultureother cultural phenomenaCultureVerbal languageSmall cultureNon-verbal languageBody language is the important part of non-verbal language. Non-verbal language and culture are learned behaviour and social custom that prosperous in long history heritage. The relatio nship between both have these characters in mortal like Samovar etals eyes culture and non-verbal language can not be divided. Many non-verbal languages are the result of learning culture. The shaping and impacting of non-verbal behaviour are always decided by determinate culture environment. It is very important to understand the relationship between culture and non-verbal language. (Samovar etal, 1981) Samovar thought that through understanding the basic represent mode of some cultures non-verbal language, we can search peoples behaviour and attitude. done non-verbal language mode can understand a single out of cultures value system. Through the research of non-verbal language can exclude the narrow ethnocentrism. The most veridical signification of researching the relationship between culture and non-verbal language in intercultural communication is to resolve the culture conflict in non-verbal language. People always do not realize the learning of their own culture, but very sensitive with other cultures non-verbal language and easily produce misunderstand. Worth the whistle, the culture conflict brought by non-verbal language is serious than that brought by verbal language. Because non-verbal language always is the expression of sensibility and emotion. Samovar put forward that to resolve the non-verbal language culture conflict in international communication should remember the follow three principles when understand the meaning of other cultures non-verbal language1. When pay attention to the behaviour of a non-verbal language can not ignore that there are manifold non-verbal language cooperative work in real communication.2. Anyone can not list and describe all the non-verbal language in any culture. But if we can understand exactly the information of some usually used non-verbal language under the international communication environment, it will be helpful to understand the necessary information.3. Only understand our cultures non-verbal language first, can we understand other cultures behaviour.Under international communication, to identify the message of non-verbal language should avoid modal or only notice superficies. Be sure to nutrition in mind that any non-verbal language does not appear lonely, nor deliver any message consciously. Pay special attention to that when study foreign language, international communication activity, and international research, for the need of communicating, studying and researching, people have to make a summation and generalization of the non-verbal language of the same country and the same language nation to sum up some representative non-verbal language. However, in real communication, people must find that the non-verbal language in the same country and nation are not just the same. Even in the same area, it is differ in thousands of ways between the people in different occupations, different age groups and different culture levels. Such as America which is famous for transnational imm igrant living together, their non-verbal language are very hard to be consistent. So as the different English country, the differences are more further.III. Body language3.1 DefinitionBody language is a way of communication that body rides which use head, eyes, neck, hands, arm, foot or other parts of the body to express peoples thought and emotions. nervus facialis expressions, eye contact and other postures and gestures are the commonly used body campaign. In a general sense of word, body language includes facial expression, in a narrow sense of word, body language only includes the meaning expressed by body and four limbs. The assortment of body language was groundbreaking by Ruesch and Kees in 1956 according to the basic component of non-verbal language. It involves sign language, action language, and object language. The other assortment was advanced by M. Knapp in 1978 through the analysis of some pertinent researching and literatures. That are body motion and kinesics beh aviour, physical characteristics, touching behaviour, paralanguage, proxemics, artifacts, environmental factors. Subsequently, Jensen advanced another statement body motion and gestures, attitudes toward time, attitudes toward space, general habits in communication.The research of human body language can trace back to Aristotle in Greek. The formally research was beginning from Darwin. In his 1872 book The stockion of the Emotions in Man and Animals put forward that man and animals have many similar expressions. The systemic research of body language must come first dig Birdwhistell. His 1952 book Introduction to Kinesics put forward the theory of kinesics. Made the body language become a coding system like verbal language to study the relationship between body case and communication.Body Language of Julius Fast is a representative work that reflects the research result of body language. This book is known as the summary of the scientists research in the body language field. From then on, body language becomes a boundary science and produces new research result continuously.According to estimates, human body can make out more than 270,000 kinds of posture and movement. This is far more than the sound made out by human body. These postures and movements meaning are very complex. Some are definite and material as some are general and blurry. Some are used to communicate as some are used to self-express. Some are expressing emotion message as some are reflecting character and attitude. So the sort of body language is very complex.The body language classification method of Ekman and Friesen has important effent in non-verbal language communication educational circles. According to all the movements origin, workout and code, they divided human face and bodys continuous movement into five parts1. Symbolic movement these movements have clearly meaning, such as the gesture express OK and victory. Symbolic movement always used to substitute verbal language. In gene ral, they have distinct culture character. For example, the movement means suicide, in Japan, people use hand to simulate dagger to thrust the abdomen, and in America, people use hand to simulate a gun shot temple.2. Illustrative movement these kind of movements cooperate with verbal language directly to explain the meaning of the talking. For example, to emphasize a sentence, describe a thought, indicate a material, depict a space relationship, characterize a things rhythm and speed, portray a phenomena , describe a body movement, explain a sentences meaning, etc.3. Emotion revealing movement mainly through facial expression to show emotion or mood, of course the other part of body can also express these emotion. Express the emotion can repeat, exaggerate,deny the verbal language, or may be no relationship with it. Express the emotion always deliver the message of communication unconscious, but also can use it in communicating conscious.4. Modulation movement this kind of movement is used for maintaining or adjusting the talk in the face-to-face talk. It drops a hint that the speaker can pull through talking, repeat again, explain further, speak fast or more lively, let other people have a talk, etc. In recent years, people pay attention to the research of the turn-talking in chat. Turn-talking means that telling the opposite side I want to talk stopping the speaker changing the topic removeing the other side to give me a speaking chance let the other side keep talking telling the others that I have finish my talking and you can speak. The usually used movement is head and eye movement.5. Adaptable movement Ekman and Friesen divide it more further 1). Self-adaptable movement this kind of movement always happen on personally, such as, holding own hand, rubbing hand, grabing, scratching, clutching, nipping, whisking or gathering the cloth. In general, the emotion is more disconcerting, the pretty actions are more distinguished. Picking nose and wiping eyes be long to this kind. 2). Transformational adaptable movement this kind of movement take stick in the connect with other people. Such as, bringing or delivering, attacking or protecting, close or away. Leg movement can react that encroach, footsie or attack. Shaking hand or foot means fidgety that the person want to avoid talking. 3). Object adaptable movement this kind of movement always relate to the using of material, such as smoking and writing.3.2 The function of body language in intercultural communicationAs the necessary communication tool, body language has important function in intercultural communication. Bradford J. Hall(2002) summarized the mainly function of body language language1. Repetition Body language can reinforce the verbal language by repeating the verbal message nonverbally, such as using a gesture, it can help the receiver understand the message easily. For example, when someone ask you where is the restaurant, you can point a certain direction when you say, th e restaurant is north the library. Or we point to the question on the book we just ask.2. Substitution Body language can be used to replace some verbal language to deliver a certain meaning. When your friend meet a worrisome thing that make him cry, you can give him a hug. This is more powerful than any soothing words.3. Contradiction Body language sometimes can reveal the speaker by laying contradictory message to the verbal language. The body language is often regarded as the powerful word than the spoken words. For example, we cant keep our face from blushing even say we dont nervous or we cant slow down our heartbeat if we are scared. And the teacher can find a student is wandering from the eyesight even though his eyes are staring the blackboard. So the body language is reliable than the verbal language sometimes.4. emphasizing It can force the power when you add a body language with your talk than only use verbal language. When you justify to someone, if an apology show o n you face, this can make your apology more conviction. In addition, body language can provide a complement to the verbal language. In some countries, you can up you thumb as the same time you give a admiration to your friends for his good performance.5. Regulation The body language also helps us to check the situation of our talking. For example, when we need a quiet, we can put our finger on our lip.IV. The analysis of the differences of the same body language in different cultures4.1 The different meaning of the same body language in different culturesHere contrast some body languages that usually used but have different meaning. If you use a very awful body language, this might bring a badly result.1. In China, up the thumbs means good to praise you are doing a good job, bravo and so on. It is same in many countries. If thumbs down means disagree, finish or youre game over. But in Australia, no matter it up or down is obscene.2. Protrude the index finger means wait a minute in America, but in Australia it means one more beer.3. Protrude the little finger means cowardly man in England as bet in America.4. The V for victory or stop sign in America if made with the palm facing inward is taunting or sneering in England. It is very offensive to societys morals.5. American people sometimes up head, palm facing down, index finger across the throat, it means Im full. I cant eat anymore. But it means decapitation in China.6. When Chinese people communicating with foreign people, the most antipathetic movement is using index finger point the others casual. Indeed, the movement is in bad taste and impolite to western people. This is reproof and rebuke.7. Chinese male like to put hands on other mans shoulder for a long time. And Chinese female person frequently take other womans hand closely for long time. These shock the foreigners because they consider this gesture means homosexual.8. When Chinese people receive or send a cup of water or a gift, they will use two hands to accept it to show appreciate and admiration. But American people dont care about whether use one or two hands.9. When talking with American people Chinese like to put their hands crossed tramp their back or into their pockets. But these gestures make the American think you are hiding guns in your hands.10. Chinese may scratch their noses when feeling uncomfortable. This is confused the western people because in their culture this movement means Im telling a lie.4.2 Some embarrassing examples due to misunderstanding of body languageUnder the same culture, people may have misunderstanding because of the body language, even the different culture. Culture difference in different countries, so the body language can express different meaning. If we do not understand the other peoples meaning, it will have misunderstanding and displeasure. For ExamplesTom is the manager of an American company in China. Recently, Li Lei, one of the Chinese staff makes a mistake at work. He is very upset about what had happened, so he comes to Toms authorization to apologize. Entering the office with smile. He says I feel terribly sorry for the mistake. I am here to make a sincerely apology to you and promise that it will never happen again. When he said this, the smile always on his face. But Tom feels it is hard to accept and ask himAre you sure? Li says yes with smile. Tom is ferocious and saysYou dont look sorry at all. If you really feel sorry, how can you still smile? Li feels so embarrassed and does not know what to do.A Chinese student Wangdan and her friend, the American student Judy who studys in China were on the way to store. They saw a boy fell down on the ground. He tested to stand up while the surrounding people laughed. Luckily he was ok. Judy was worried but found Wangdan was smiling too. She was very curious and asked how could you laugh when someone else fell down. Why dont you help him to stand up and ask him whether he was hurt. Wangdan said, Because they know he was not hurt too much. But Judy still couldnt understand. She said, In my culture, if this was happen, we would do anything but laugh.The former examples are all about the smile. In daily life we usually smile, but in different culture, this ordinary movement can bring misunderstanding or some more serious results. When western people come across these situations, they will with solemn face to apologize or come to console the boy. Though smile means happy, it is the symbol for people in general, but in different culture, smiling in the communication are different. The western people think smile always means happy, high in spirits or think something is funny. But Chinese people often smile, because it not only means humours and satisfaction, also means embarrassment and protection, even a kind of evadable. So it confuses the western people, they say it is too hard to understand. In China, people sometimes use smile to eliminate embarrassment, also means never mind, and t he person smile to self-mockery or play a joke. But if the affair is very serious, people will provide help but laugh out of court. So for the people who do not know the meaning, this kind of smile will make them unhappy even produce antipathy.A Chinese student went to a American family and sent present to the child of this family,when he beckon to the little boy, yet the boy back off him.The hand movement is very abundant and with infective. Every gesture has its particular function. In the case, the Chinese student used Chinese gesture, which palm facing down and making a scratching motion with fingers to beckon. This is different in America that means to go away. When they let somebody to close up, their palm facing up or only move index finger. This is opposite to Chinese and may bring Chinese peoples repulsion.V. ConclusionAfter the briefly analysis of the analysis of body language in intercultural communications, we have a knowledge about the relationship between culture and l anguage, and the influence of body language in the communication. The body language in our daily life is incalculable. Every one can use his body to represent himself. Body language is the same as verbal language to be the carrier of culture that may cause misunderstanding in the international communication because of culture difference. As an English major, to understand the culture of the target language is very important. Having the knowledge of body language will be helpful to us in intercultural communication.